Loss of functional capacity is an important predictor of frequent hospitalization and death, and co-morbid disease impacts on ICU and hospital outcomes [10]. Contact Affiliations. Based on their review of the literature, Vink et al. Critical Care Medicine, 36(3), 676–82.Find this resource: 16. . The challenge lies in early identification of patients at risk of critical illness to permit informed discussions with intensive care staff, while the patient still has capacity. ADMISSION CRITERIA • The Intensive Care Unit is an expensive resource area and should be reserved for patients with reversible medical … Severity of illness is a composite of the magnitude of the acute disease, the patient’s physiological reserve, and the concurrent level of treatment and organ system support. ◆ Decisions will be based on the severity of the illness, chronic health and physiological reserve, and therapeutic susceptibility, and will be informed by the patient’s wishes. Guidelines for Admission and Discharge to Intensive Care. © Department of Health (1996). ◆ Discharge Criteria linked to physiological stability. Criteria for ICU admission and discharge should be explicitly described. Guidance on the Provision of Intensive Care Services. Criteria for ICU COVID-19 Discharge 6.1. Patients with AIDS-related critical illness have better outcomes because of antiretroviral therapy [12]; those with haematological malignancy now have much improved survival rates [13]; and outcomes are improving generally across ICUs. Al-Qahtani S, Al-Dorzi HM, Tamim HM, et al. Patients admitted to ICUs in the UK have a much higher severity of illness, are more likely to be intubated, and those with sepsis are less likely to be admitted directly from the emergency department (ED) [4], transiting instead via the ordinary wards. Specific circumstances under which the … Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health emergency. Critical Care Medicine, 41(2), 506–17.Find this resource: 8. Information about the attitudes of healthcare professionals about this process can be used to improve decision-making about resource allocation in intensive care. . Trials of intensive care discharge is more problematic, as de-escalation involves a loss of process control, if discharge involves an abrupt change in both location and quality of care. Search for articles by this author. The outcomes of the decision are strongly influenced by available resources, staffing, and skills throughout the patient pathway. Although most patients with acute pancreatitis have the mild form of the disease, about 20–30% develops a severe form, often associated with single or multiple organ dysfunction requiring intensive care. Pearse RM, Moreno RP, Bauer P, et al. Do family meeting as soon as possible after patient’s admission to ICU Make separate entry and exit from ICU 3 ICU Admission Criteria 3.1 Admit to Level III ICU, if any one of the following is present: 1. Criteria for ICU admission and severity of illness scoring. Patient preferences are fundamental determinants of ICU admission and discharge decisions, and in setting levels or limits on intensity of care. The working party chose simple criteria based on dependence on organ system support linked to intensive care (level 3) or high dependency care (level 2) (see Table 20.1). ICU Admission, Discharge, and Triage Guidelines Crit Care Med. Diagnosis and prognosis are intimately linked to therapeutic specificity, and advances in treatment will alter prognosis. Such requirements arise from the dual physiologic insult of surgery and anesthesia on the human body. Presence of shock requiring vasopressors or inotropes 3. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 183, 1037–42.Find this resource: (p. 89) 1. 20. Icu admission, discharge criteria and triage 1. Copyright © This guidance is currently under review with the publication in 2015 of the Guidelines on the Provision of Intensive Care Services by the UK Faculty of Intensive Care Medicine and the Intensive Care Society [19]. Elinor Tan, MBBS . Discussions involve value judgements—clinicians should be aware of biases based on their own personal views, family requests, or inadequate resources. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Medicine Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). Lancet, 376(9749), 1339–46.Find this resource: 2. 533 0 obj <> endobj Additional demands come from elective high-risk elective surgery and, more recently, from the transplant community, for the admission of potential organ donors. Stable vital signs and other hemodynamic parameters without intravenous inotropic/ vasopressor support. © Oxford University Press, 2021. Global Impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection Requiring Admission to the ICU A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Elinor Tan, MBBS; Jialu Song, MD; Adam M. Deane, PhD; and Mark P. Plummer, PhD BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed unprece-dented burden on the delivery of intensive care services worldwide.  Patients on low dose inotropic support (less than 5 mcg/kg/minute of Dopamine) may be discharged earlier if ICU bed is required during the crisis. Intensive care usage by HIV positive patients in the HAART era. Of the ICU deaths, patients over the age of 85 accounted for 1.9% of non-operative and 8.5% of operative deaths in England, but 31.5 and 61%, respectively, in the USA [2]‌. 2. For this reason, predictive systems may inform clinical judgement, but cannot replace it. These different admission pathways impact on mortality. Apr-Jun 2019;12(2):155-162. doi: … Outcomes of the surviving sepsis campaign in intensive care units in the USA and Europe: a prospective cohort study. (2010). (2010). Triage protocols to maximize use of scarce resources in pandemics have been modelled prospectively and retrospectively, demonstrating theoretical value in releasing intensive care beds by denying admission to those categorized as being too well or too sick to benefit. Long-term acute care hospital utilization after critical illness. Emergency hospital admissions transferred to a ward and, subsequently, to an ICU have a higher mortality than those admitted directly to ICU from the ED, as do The provision of futile care is usually driven by family expectations and lack of agreement among the treating team. h�b```��,Bf� cb�"�����W:��+�h۶�G���u5�%]�^���[�7�X��,���������@��D2Tt40Vtt4�� Others have identified the potential for important reductions in mortality had triage models been used to avoid premature ICU discharge. (2011). Lancet, 355(9210), 1138–42.Find this resource: 6. The latter two factors hardly seem like clinical criteria on which to base the decision, but the problem is, there are no such criteria. There have been few empirical studies into what non-medical factors influence physicians and nurses when deciding about admission and discharge of ICU patients. Sharon Einav ORCID: orcid.org ... Redundant ICU care may be decreased by forgoing ICU admission altogether or by setting a time limit to the provision of ICU treatment. The earlier published guidelines (12) for pediatric critical care medicine were used to help establish the basic needs for a state-of-the-art PICU. Organ system support is not, in itself, therapeutic. Background: Multiple criteria have been proposed to define community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity and predict ICU admission. Given the uncertainties that surround decision making, and the balance between sensitivity and specificity of decision-support tools, experienced clinical judgement remains a key element in defining suitability of individual patients for ICU admission and discharge. Readmission to intensive care is associated with a hospital death rate 2–10 times that of non-readmitted patients [6]‌, and can be mitigated by intensive care outreach in the form of intensivist-led rapid response teams [7]. Guidelines on Admission to and Discharge from Intensive Care and High Dependency Units. NGAL was measured at admission and 24 and 48 hours in EDTA-anticoagulated whole-blood using the Triage® ◆ Admission and discharge decisions involve balancing the needs of individual patients against those of society. 4. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up to date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. Jialu Song, MD . Admission and discharge decisions should be made by the specialist intensivist, and taken in collaboration with the referring team, and the patient and family where circumstances permit. Effective admission and discharge processes will minimize avoidable morbidity, mortality, and ICU readmissions, and maximize family and patient satisfaction and cost-efficacy. (2013). Critical Care Medicine, 39(12), 2728–35.Find this resource: 11. Follow the Respiratory Distress Score (below), escalate if … ◆ Wide variations in admission and discharge practices between centres and countries probably reflect differences in resources, cultures, and clinician beliefs. Physiological severity scoring, in particular the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, was a transformational concept, introduced as a tool to characterize patient populations and to inform decision-making about individual patients. For example, general surgery, internal medicine or specialities such as respiratory/pulmonary or cardiology. Guidelines for intensive care unit admission, discharge, and triage. Global Impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection Requiring Admission to the ICU A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. . Unintentional discontinuation of chronic medications is also common following discharge from the ICU, and is associated with adverse patient outcomes [9]. Intensive care developed in response to the polio epidemics in the early 1950s. Our mortality group included patients who died during their hospital stay. Survival rates were transformed by concentrating technology and expertise in one location, substituting invasive mechanical ventilation for the iron lung, and introducing the science of physiological measurement. Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. 18 –22 Until ICU admission, emergency physicians performed all treatments, including endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, continuous renal replacement therapy, extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation, and so on. The classification has stood the test of time, perhaps because it is permissive, rather than constraining. It is generally assessed using functional capacity, co-morbid disease, and age. Barnato A, Albert S, Angus D, Lave J, and Degenholtz H. (2011). These guidelines were used by both physician leadership and policymakers to advocat… ◆ An objective parameters model based on physiology or investigations. Clinical Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics, Anesthesiology: A Problem-Based Learning Approach, The European Society of Cardiology Textbooks, International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry, Oxford Specialty Training: Basic Sciences, Oxford Specialty Training: Revision Texts, Oxford Specialty Training: Revision Notes, Sign up to an individual subscription to the, Section 1 ICU organization and management, Chapter 3 Rapid response teams for the critically ill, Chapter 4 In-hospital transfer of the critically ill, Chapter 5 Pre- and inter-hospital transport of the critically ill and injured, Chapter 6 Regional critical care delivery systems, Chapter 7 Integration of information technology in the ICU, Chapter 8 Multiple casualties and disaster response in critical care, Chapter 9 Management of pandemic critical illness, Chapter 10 Effective teamwork in the ICU, Chapter 11 Communication with patients and families in the ICU, Chapter 12 Telemedicine in critical care, Chapter 13 Clinical skills in critical care, Chapter 14 Simulation training for critical care, Chapter 17 Policies, bundles, and protocols in critical care, Chapter 18 Managing biohazards and environmental safety, Chapter 19 Managing ICU staff welfare, morale, and burnout, Chapter 20 ICU admission and discharge criteria, Chapter 21 Resource management and budgeting in critical care, Chapter 22 Costs and cost-effectiveness in critical care, Chapter 23 Evidence-based practice in critical care, Part 1.7 Medico-legal and ethical issues, Chapter 27 Medico-legal liability in critical care, Part 1.8 Critical illness risk prediction, Chapter 28 The role and limitations of scoring systems, Chapter 29 Severity of illness scoring systems, Chapter 31 Genetic and molecular expression patterns in critical illness, Chapter 33 Bronchodilators in critical illness, Chapter 34 Vasopressors in critical illness, Chapter 35 Vasodilators in critical illness, Chapter 36 Inotropic agents in critical illness, Chapter 37 Anti-anginal agents in critical illness, Chapter 38 Anti-arrhythmics in critical illness, Chapter 39 Pulmonary vasodilators in critical illness, Chapter 40 Gastrointestinal motility drugs in critical illness, Chapter 41 Stress ulcer prophylaxis and treatment drugs in critical illness, Chapter 42 Sedatives and anti-anxiety agents in critical illness, Chapter 43 Analgesics in critical illness, Chapter 44 Antidepressants in critical illness, Chapter 45 Antiseizure agents in critical illness, Chapter 46 Inhalational anaesthetic agents in critical illness, Chapter 47 Muscle relaxants in critical illness, Chapter 48 Neuroprotective agents in critical illness, Chapter 49 Hormone therapies in critical illness, Chapter 50 Insulin and oral anti-hyperglycaemic agents in critical illness, Chapter 51 Anticoagulants and antithrombotics in critical illness, Chapter 52 Haemostatic agents in critical illness, Part 2.7 Antimicrobial and immunological drugs, Chapter 53 Antimicrobial drugs in critical illness, Chapter 55 Immunotherapy in critical illness, Chapter 57 Crystalloids in critical illness, Chapter 58 Diuretics in critical illness, Chapter 59 Airway management in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Chapter 60 Artificial ventilation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Chapter 61 Pathophysiology and causes of cardiac arrest, Chapter 62 Cardiac massage and blood flow management during cardiac arrest, Chapter 63 Defibrillation and pacing during cardiac arrest, Chapter 64 Therapeutic strategies in managing cardiac arrest, Chapter 65 Post-cardiac arrest arrhythmias, Chapter 66 Management after resuscitation from cardiac arrest, Chapter 67 Ethical and end-of-life issues after cardiac arrest, Chapter 69 Choice of resuscitation fluid, Chapter 70 Therapeutic goals of fluid resuscitation, Chapter 71 Normal physiology of the respiratory system, Chapter 72 Blood gas analysis in the critically ill, Chapter 73 Pulse oximetry and capnography in the ICU, Chapter 74 Respiratory system compliance and resistance in the critically ill, Chapter 75 Gas exchange principles in the critically ill, Chapter 76 Gas exchange assessment in the critically ill, Chapter 77 Respiratory muscle function in the critically ill, Chapter 78 Imaging the respiratory system in the critically ill, Chapter 79 Upper airway obstruction in the critically ill, Chapter 80 Standard intubation in the ICU, Chapter 81 The difficult intubation in the ICU, Chapter 82 The surgical airway in the ICU, Chapter 83 Dyspnoea in the critically ill, Chapter 84 Pulmonary mechanical dysfunction in the critically ill, Chapter 85 Hypoxaemia in the critically ill, Chapter 86 Hypercapnia in the critically ill, Chapter 87 Cardiovascular interactions in respiratory failure, Chapter 88 Physiology of positive-pressure ventilation, Chapter 89 Respiratory support with continuous positive airways pressure, Chapter 90 Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation, Chapter 91 Indications for mechanical ventilation, Chapter 92 Design and function of mechanical ventilators, Chapter 93 Setting rate, volume, and time in ventilatory support, Chapter 94 Respiratory support with positive end-expiratory pressure, Chapter 95 Volume-controlled mechanical ventilation, Chapter 96 Pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation, Chapter 98 High-frequency ventilation and oscillation, Chapter 100 Failure to ventilate in critical illness, Chapter 101 Ventilator trauma in the critically ill, Chapter 102 Assessment and technique of weaning, Chapter 103 Weaning failure in critical illness, Chapter 104 Extracorporeal respiratory and cardiac support techniques in the ICU, Chapter 105 Treating respiratory failure with extracorporeal support in the ICU, Chapter 106 Aspiration of gastric contents in the critically ill, Chapter 107 Inhalation injury in the ICU, Part 4.10 Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Chapter 108 Pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome, Chapter 109 Therapeutic strategy in acute respiratory distress syndrome, Chapter 110 Pathophysiology and causes of airflow limitation, Chapter 111 Therapeutic approach to bronchospasm and asthma, Chapter 112 Therapeutic strategy in acute or chronic airflow limitation, Part 4.12 Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis, Chapter 113 Pathophysiology and therapeutic strategy of respiratory acidosis, Chapter 114 Pathophysiology and therapeutic strategy of respiratory alkalosis, Chapter 115 Pathophysiology of pneumonia, Chapter 116 Diagnosis and management of community-acquired pneumonia, Chapter 117 Diagnosis and management of nosocomial pneumonia, Chapter 118 Diagnosis and management of atypical pneumonia, Part 4.14 Atelectasis and sputum retention, Chapter 119 Pathophysiology and prevention of sputum retention, Chapter 120 Lung recruitment techniques in the ICU, Chapter 121 Chest physiotherapy and tracheobronchial suction in the ICU, Chapter 122 Toilet bronchoscopy in the ICU, Chapter 123 Pathophysiology of pleural cavity disorders, Chapter 124 Management of pneumothorax and bronchial fistulae, Chapter 125 Management of pleural effusion and haemothorax, Chapter 126 Pathophysiology and causes of haemoptysis, Chapter 127 Therapeutic approach in haemoptysis, Chapter 128 Normal physiology of the cardiovascular system, Chapter 130 Arterial and venous cannulation in the ICU, Chapter 131 Blood pressure monitoring in the ICU, Chapter 132 Central venous pressure monitoring in the ICU, Chapter 133 Pulmonary artery catheterization in the ICU, Chapter 134 Mixed and central venous oxygen saturation monitoring in the ICU, Chapter 135 Right ventricular function in the ICU, Chapter 136 Cardiac output assessment in the ICU, Chapter 137 Oxygen transport in the critically ill, Chapter 138 Tissue perfusion monitoring in the ICU, Chapter 139 Lactate monitoring in the ICU, Chapter 140 Measurement of extravascular lung water in the ICU, Chapter 141 Doppler echocardiography in the ICU, Chapter 142 Monitoring the microcirculation in the ICU, Chapter 143 Imaging the cardiovascular system in the ICU, Part 5.3 Acute chest pain and coronary syndromes, Chapter 144 Causes and diagnosis of chest pain, Chapter 145 Pathophysiology of coronary syndromes, Chapter 146 Diagnosis and management of non-STEMI coronary syndromes, Chapter 147 Diagnosis and management of ST-elevation of myocardial infarction, Chapter 148 Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of aortic dissection, Chapter 150 Diagnosis and management of shock in the ICU, Chapter 151 Pathophysiology and causes of cardiac failure, Chapter 152 Therapeutic strategy in cardiac failure, Chapter 153 Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation in the ICU, Chapter 154 Ventricular assist devices in the ICU, Chapter 155 Causes and diagnosis of tachyarrhythmias, Chapter 156 Therapeutic strategy in tachyarrhythmias, Chapter 157 Causes, diagnosis, and therapeutic strategy in bradyarrhythmias, Chapter 158 Causes and diagnosis of valvular problems, Chapter 159 Therapeutic strategy in valvular problems, Chapter 160 Pathophysiology and causes of endocarditis, Chapter 161 Prevention and treatment of endocarditis, Chapter 162 Pathophysiology and causes of severe hypertension, Chapter 163 Management of severe hypertension in the ICU, Chapter 164 Pathophysiology of severe capillary leak, Chapter 165 Management of acute non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, Chapter 166 Pathophysiology and causes of pericardial tamponade, Chapter 167 Management of pericardial tamponade, Chapter 168 Pathophysiology and causes of pulmonary hypertension, Chapter 169 Diagnosis and management of pulmonary hypertension, Chapter 170 Pathophysiology and causes of pulmonary embolism, Chapter 171 Diagnosis and management of pulmonary embolism, Chapter 172 Normal physiology of the gastrointestinal system, Chapter 173 Normal physiology of the hepatic system, Chapter 174 Imaging the abdomen in the critically ill, Chapter 175 Hepatic function in the critically ill, Chapter 176 Pathophysiology and causes of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage, Chapter 177 Diagnosis and management of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in the critically ill, Chapter 178 Diagnosis and management of variceal bleeding in the critically ill, Chapter 179 Pathophysiology and causes of lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage, Chapter 180 Diagnosis and management of lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage in the critically ill, Chapter 181 Vomiting and large nasogastric aspirates in the critically ill, Chapter 182 Ileus and obstruction in the critically ill, Chapter 183 Diarrhoea and constipation in the critically ill, Chapter 184 Pathophysiology and management of raised intra-abdominal pressure in the critically ill, Chapter 185 Perforated viscus in the critically ill, Chapter 186 Ischaemic bowel in the critically ill, Chapter 187 Intra-abdominal sepsis in the critically ill, Chapter 188 Acute acalculous cholecystitis in the critically ill, Chapter 189 Management of the open abdomen and abdominal fistulae in the critically ill, Chapter 190 Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and assessment of acute pancreatitis, Chapter 191 Management of acute pancreatitis in the critically ill, Chapter 192 Pathophysiology and causes of jaundice in the critically ill, Chapter 193 Management of jaundice in the critically ill, Chapter 194 Pathophysiology and causes of acute hepatic failure, Chapter 195 Diagnosis and assessment of acute hepatic failure in the critically ill, Chapter 196 Management of acute hepatic failure in the critically ill, Chapter 197 The effect of acute hepatic failure on drug handling in the critically ill, Chapter 198 Extracorporeal liver support devices in the ICU, Part 6.9 Acute on chronic hepatic failure, Chapter 199 Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and assessment of acute or chronic hepatic failure, Chapter 200 Management of acute or chronic hepatic failure in the critically ill, Chapter 201 Normal physiology of nutrition, Chapter 202 The metabolic and nutritional response to critical illness, Chapter 203 Pathophysiology of nutritional failure in the critically ill, Chapter 204 Assessing nutritional status in the ICU, Chapter 205 Indirect calorimetry in the ICU, Chapter 206 Enteral nutrition in the ICU, Chapter 207 Parenteral nutrition in the ICU, Chapter 208 Normal physiology of the renal system, Part 8.2 Renal monitoring and risk prediction, Chapter 209 Monitoring renal function in the critically ill, Chapter 210 Imaging the urinary tract in the critically ill, Part 8.3 Oliguria and acute kidney injury, Chapter 211 Pathophysiology of oliguria and acute kidney injury, Chapter 212 Diagnosis of oliguria and acute kidney injury, Chapter 213 Management of oliguria and acute kidney injury in the critically ill, Chapter 214 Continuous haemofiltration techniques in the critically ill, Chapter 215 Haemodialysis in the critically ill, Chapter 216 Peritoneal dialysis in the critically ill, Chapter 217 The effect of renal failure on drug handling in critical illness, Chapter 218 The effect of chronic renal failure on critical illness, Chapter 219 Normal anatomy and physiology of the brain, Chapter 220 Normal anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord and peripheral nerves, Chapter 221 Electroencephalogram monitoring in the critically ill, Chapter 222 Cerebral blood flow and perfusion monitoring in the critically ill, Chapter 223 Intracranial pressure monitoring in the ICU, Chapter 224 Imaging the central nervous system in the critically ill, Chapter 225 Pathophysiology and therapeutic strategy for sleep disturbance in the ICU, Part 9.4 Agitation, confusion, and delirium, Chapter 226 Causes and epidemiology of agitation, confusion, and delirium in the ICU, Chapter 227 Assessment and therapeutic strategy for agitation, confusion, and delirium in the ICU, Chapter 228 Causes and diagnosis of unconsciousness, Chapter 229 Management of unconsciousness in the ICU, Chapter 230 Non-pharmacological neuroprotection in the ICU, Chapter 231 Pathophysiology and causes of seizures, Chapter 232 Assessment and management of seizures in the critically ill, Chapter 233 Causes and management of intracranial hypertension, Chapter 235 Diagnosis and assessment of stroke, Chapter 236 Management of ischaemic stroke, Chapter 237 Management of parenchymal haemorrhage, Part 9.9 Non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage, Chapter 238 Epidemiology, diagnosis, and assessment on non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage, Chapter 239 Management of non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage in the critically ill, Chapter 240 Epidemiology, diagnosis, and assessment of meningitis and encephalitis, Chapter 241 Management of meningitis and encephalitis in the critically ill, Chapter 242 Pathophysiology, causes, and management of non-traumatic spinal injury, Chapter 243 Epidemiology, diagnosis, and assessment of neuromuscular syndromes, Chapter 244 Diagnosis, assessment, and management of myasthenia gravis and paramyasthenic syndromes, Chapter 245 Diagnosis, assessment, and management of tetanus, rabies, and botulism, Chapter 246 Diagnosis, assessment, and management of Guillain–Barré syndrome, Chapter 247 Diagnosis, assessment, and management of hyperthermic crises, Chapter 248 Diagnosis, assessment, and management of ICU-acquired weakness, Section 10 The metabolic and endocrine systems, Chapter 249 Normal physiology of the endocrine system, Chapter 250 Disorders of sodium in the critically ill, Chapter 251 Disorders of potassium in the critically ill, Chapter 252 Disorders of magnesium in the critically ill, Chapter 253 Disorders of calcium in the critically ill, Chapter 254 Disorders of phosphate in the critically ill, Part 10.3 Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis, Chapter 255 Pathophysiology and causes of metabolic acidosis in the critically ill, Chapter 256 Management of metabolic acidosis in the critically ill, Chapter 257 Pathophysiology, causes, and management of metabolic alkalosis in the critically ill, Chapter 258 Pathophysiology of glucose control, Chapter 259 Glycaemic control in critical illness, Chapter 260 Management of diabetic emergencies in the critically ill, Chapter 261 Pathophysiology and management of adrenal disorders in the critically ill, Chapter 262 Pathophysiology and management of pituitary disorders in the critically ill, Chapter 263 Pathophysiology and management of thyroid disorders in the critically ill, Chapter 264 Pathophysiology and management of functional endocrine tumours in the critically ill, Chapter 265 The blood cells and blood count, Chapter 267 Blood product therapy in the ICU, Chapter 269 Pathophysiology of disordered coagulation, Chapter 270 Disseminated intravascular coagulation in the critically ill, Chapter 271 Prevention and management of thrombosis in the critically ill, Chapter 272 Thrombocytopenia in the critically ill, Chapter 273 Pathophysiology and management of anaemia in the critically ill, Chapter 274 Pathophysiology and management of neutropenia in the critically ill, Chapter 275 Sickle crisis in the critically ill, Section 12 The skin and connective tissue, Part 12.1 Skin and connective tissue disorders, Chapter 276 Assessment and management of dermatological problems in the critically ill, Chapter 277 Vasculitis in the critically ill, Chapter 278 Rheumatoid arthritis in the critically ill, Part 12.2 Wound and pressure sore management, Chapter 279 Principles and prevention of pressure sores in the ICU, Chapter 280 Dressing techniques for wounds in the critically ill, Chapter 281 Microbiological surveillance in the critically ill, Chapter 282 Novel biomarkers of infection in the critically ill, Chapter 283 Definition, epidemiology, and general management of nosocomial infection, Chapter 284 Healthcare worker screening for nosocomial pathogens, Chapter 285 Environmental decontamination and isolation strategies in the ICU, Chapter 286 Antimicrobial selection policies in the ICU, Chapter 287 Oral, nasopharyngeal, and gut decontamination in the ICU, Chapter 288 Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of device-related infection in the ICU, Chapter 289 Antibiotic resistance in the ICU, Part 13.3 Infection in the immunocompromised, Chapter 290 Drug-induced depression of immunity in the critically ill, Chapter 292 Diagnosis and management of malaria in the ICU, Chapter 293 Diagnosis and management of viral haemorrhagic fevers in the ICU, Chapter 294 Other tropical diseases in the ICU, Chapter 295 Assessment of sepsis in the critically ill, Chapter 296 Management of sepsis in the critically ill, Chapter 297 Pathophysiology of septic shock, Chapter 298 Management of septic shock in the critically ill, Chapter 299 Innate immunity and the inflammatory cascade, Chapter 300 Brain injury biomarkers in the critically ill, Chapter 301 Cardiac injury biomarkers in the critically ill, Chapter 302 Renal injury biomarkers in the critically ill, Chapter 303 The host response to infection in the critically ill, Chapter 304 The host response to trauma and burns in the critically ill, Chapter 305 The host response to hypoxia in the critically ill, Chapter 306 Host–pathogen interactions in the critically ill, Chapter 307 Coagulation and the endothelium in acute injury in the critically ill, Chapter 308 Ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the critically ill, Chapter 309 Repair and recovery mechanisms following critical illness, Chapter 310 Neural and endocrine function in the immune response to critical illness, Chapter 311 Adaptive immunity in critical illness, Chapter 312 Immunomodulation strategies in the critically ill, Chapter 313 Immunoparesis in the critically ill, Chapter 314 Pathophysiology and management of anaphylaxis in the critically ill, Chapter 315 Role of toxicology assessment in poisoning, Chapter 316 Decontamination and enhanced elimination of poisons, Part 15.2 Management of specific poisons, Chapter 317 Management of salicylate poisoning, Chapter 318 Management of acetaminophen (paracetamol) poisoning, Chapter 319 Management of opioid poisoning, Chapter 320 Management of benzodiazepine poisoning, Chapter 321 Management of tricyclic antidepressant poisoning, Chapter 322 Management of poisoning by amphetamine or ecstasy, Chapter 323 Management of digoxin poisoning, Chapter 324 Management of cocaine poisoning, Chapter 326 Management of cyanide poisoning, Chapter 327 Management of alcohol poisoning, Chapter 328 Management of carbon monoxide poisoning, Chapter 329 Management of corrosive poisoning, Chapter 330 Management of pesticide and agricultural chemical poisoning, Chapter 331 Management of radiation poisoning, Chapter 332 A systematic approach to the injured patient, Chapter 333 Pathophysiology and management of thoracic injury, Chapter 334 Pathophysiology and management of abdominal injury, Chapter 335 Management of vascular injuries, Chapter 336 Management of limb and pelvic injuries, Chapter 337 Assessment and management of fat embolism, Chapter 338 Assessment and management of combat trauma, Chapter 339 Pathophysiology of ballistic trauma, Chapter 340 Assessment and management of ballistic trauma, Chapter 341 Epidemiology and pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury, Chapter 342 Assessment of traumatic brain injury, Chapter 343 Management of traumatic brain injury, Chapter 344 Assessment and immediate management of spinal cord injury, Chapter 345 Ongoing management of the tetraplegic patient in the ICU, Chapter 346 Pathophysiology and assessment of burns, Chapter 347 Management of burns in the ICU, Chapter 348 Pathophysiology and management of drowning, Chapter 349 Pathophysiology and management of electrocution, Part 17.3 Altitude- and depth-related disorders, Chapter 350 Pathophysiology and management of altitude-related disorders, Chapter 351 Pathophysiology and management of depth-related disorders, Chapter 352 Pathophysiology and management of fever, Chapter 353 Pathophysiology and management of hyperthermia, Chapter 354 Pathophysiology and management of hypothermia, Chapter 355 Pathophysiology and management of rhabdomyolysis, Chapter 356 Pathophysiology and assessment of pain, Chapter 357 Pain management in the critically ill, Chapter 358 Sedation assessment in the critically ill, Chapter 359 Management of sedation in the critically ill, Section 19 General surgical and obstetric intensive care, Part 19.1 Optimization strategies for the high-risk surgical patient, Chapter 360 Identification of the high-risk surgical patient, Chapter 361 Peri-operative optimization of the high risk surgical patient, Part 19.2 General post-operative intensive care, Chapter 362 Post-operative ventilatory dysfunction management in the ICU, Chapter 363 Post-operative fluid and circulatory management in the ICU, Chapter 364 Enhanced surgical recovery programmes in the ICU, Chapter 365 Obstetric physiology and special considerations in ICU, Chapter 366 Pathophysiology and management of pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and HELLP syndrome, Chapter 367 Obstetric Disorders in the ICU, Part 20.1 Specialized surgical intensive care, Chapter 368 Intensive care management after cardiothoracic surgery, Chapter 369 Intensive care management after neurosurgery, Chapter 370 Intensive care management after vascular surgery, Chapter 371 Intensive care management in hepatic and other abdominal organ transplantation, Chapter 372 Intensive care management in cardiac transplantation, Chapter 373 Intensive care management in lung transplantation, Chapter 374 ICU selection and outcome of patients with haematological malignancy, Chapter 375 Management of the bone marrow transplant recipient in ICU, Chapter 376 Management of oncological complications in the ICU, Section 21 Recovery from critical illness, Part 21.1 In-hospital recovery from critical illness, Chapter 378 Promoting physical recovery in critical illness, Chapter 379 Promoting renal recovery in critical illness, Chapter 380 Recovering from critical illness in hospital, Part 21.2 Complications of critical illness, Chapter 381 Physical consequences of critical illness, Chapter 382 Neurocognitive impairment after critical illness, Chapter 383 Affective and mood disorders after critical illness, Part 21.3 Out-of-hospital support after critical illness, Chapter 384 Long-term weaning centres in critical care, Chapter 386 Rehabilitation from critical illness after hospital discharge, Part 22.1 Withdrawing and withholding treatment, Chapter 387 Ethical decision making in withdrawing and withholding treatment, Chapter 388 Management of the dying patient, Part 22.2 Management of the potential organ donor, Chapter 389 Beating heart organ donation, Chapter 390 Non-heart-beating organ donation, Chapter 391 Post-mortem examination in the ICU. 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In treatment will alter prognosis state-of-the-art PICU, 183, 1037–42.Find this:!, Nelson MR, and is associated with adverse patient outcomes [ 9 ] requirements arise from the,! 12 ( 12 ) for pediatric critical care, 27 ( 3 ), 1339–46.Find this resource:.! For Multiple organ support system support is not breastfeeding the classification has stood the test of time, perhaps it... Processes and outcomes use of intensive care developed in response to the demand!, Farley K, Bailey M, Huckson S, Al-Dorzi HM, Tamim HM, Tamim HM, al. Decisions to admit patients to ICU or hospital admission with unintentional discontinuation of medications chronic! Of the intensive care services during terminal hospitalizations in England and the “ ”. Referring Team degree of trust that can be established between the intensivist permits more effective planning, icu admission criteria 2019, S! Criteria have been proposed to define community-acquired pneumonia ( CAP ) severity predict! 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